Flow dynamics and salt transport in a coastal aquifer driven by a stratified saltwater body: Lab experiment and numerical modeling
. Journal of Hydrology
, 511 , 'עמ. 665–674. Publisher's Versionתקציר
This paper examines the transient development and the steady-state configuration of groundwater within a coastal aquifer adjacent to a stratified saltwater body. Such systems consist of three different water types: the regional fresh groundwater, and low and high salinity brines forming the upper and lower water layers of the stratified water body, respectively. The dynamics, location and the geometry of the interfaces and the density-driven circulation flows that develop in the aquifer are examined using laboratory experiments and numerical modeling at the same scale. The results show that the transient intrusion of the different water bodies into the aquifer takes place at different rates, and that the locations of the interfaces between them change with time, before reaching steady-state. Under steady-state conditions both the model and the experiments show the existence of three interfaces between the three water types. The numerical model, which is calibrated against the salinity distribution and groundwater discharge rate in the laboratory experiments, allows the quantification of the flow rates and flow patterns within the aquifer. These flow patterns, which cannot be derived from laboratory experiments, show the transient development of three circulation cells which are confined between the three interfaces. These results confirm the hypothesis that has been previously suggested based solely on a steady-state numerical modeling defined by a conceptual understanding. Parametric analysis shows that the creation of three circulation cells and three interfaces is limited to certain conditions and defines the ranges for the creation of this unique system. ?? 2014 Elsevier B.V.
Limestone weathering rates accelerated by micron-scale grain detachment
, 42 , 'עמ. 751–754.תקציר
The weathering of carbonate rocks plays a critical role in the evolution of landscapes, the erosion of buildings and monuments, and the global-scale shifting of carbon from the atmosphere to the ocean. Chemical dissolution is often assumed to govern the rates of weathering of carbonate rocks, although some studies have suggested that mechanical erosion could also play an important role. Quantifying the rates of the different processes has proved challenging, in part due to the high degree of variability encountered across different scales in both field and laboratory conditions. To constrain the rates and mechanisms controlling long-term limestone weathering, we analyze a lidar scan of the Western Wall, a Roman-period edifice located in Jerusalem. We find that extreme erosion rates in fine-grained micritic limestone blocks are as much as two orders of magnitude higher than the average rates estimated for coarse-grained limestone blocks at the same site. Atomic force microscope imaging of dissolving micritic limestone suggests that these elevated reaction rates are likely to be the result of rapid dissolution along micron-scale grain boundaries, followed by mechanical detachment of tiny particles from the surface. Our analysis indicates that such grain detachment could be the dominant erosional mode for fine-grained carbonate rocks in many regions on Earth.
CMIP5-predicted climate shifts over the East Mediterranean: implications for the transition region between Mediterranean and semi-arid climates
. International Journal of Climatology
, 5 , 'עמ. n/a–n/a. Publisher's Versionתקציר
The effect of climate change on the Eastern Mediterranean (EM) region, a region that reflects a transition between Mediterranean and semi-arid climates,was examined. This transition region is affected by global changes such as the expansion of the Hadley cell, which leads to a poleward shift of the subtropical dry zone. The Hadley cell expansion forces the migration of jet streams and storm tracks poleward from their standard course, potentially increasing regional desertification. This article focuses on the northern coastline of Israel along the EM region where most wet synoptic systems (i.e. systems that may lead to precipitation) are generated. The current climate was compared to the predicted mid-21st century climate based on Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios using four Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) models. A warming of 1.1–2.6 ∘C was predicted for this region. The models predicted that rain in the region will become less frequent, with a reduction of 1.2–3.4% in 6-h intervals classified as wet synoptic systems and a 10–22% reduction in wet events. They further predicted that the maximum wet event duration in the mid-21st century would become shorter relative to the current climate, implying that extremely long wet systems will become less frequent. Three of the models predicted shrinking of the wet season length by up to 15%. All models predicted an increasing occurrence frequency of Active Red Sea Troughs (ARSTs) for the RCP8.5 scenario by up to 11% by the mid-21st century. For the RCP4.5 scenario, a similar increase of up to 6%was predicted by two of the models.
Stochastic convective rain-field simulation using a high-resolution synoptically conditioned weather generator (HiReS-WG)
. Water Resources Research
, 50 , 'עמ. 2086–2107.תקציר
A new stochastic high-resolution synoptically conditioned weather generator (HiReS-WG) appropriate for climate regimes with a substantial proportion of convective rainfall is presented. The simulated rain fields are of high spatial (0.53 0.5 km2) and temporal (5 min) resolution and can be used for most hydrological applications. The WG is composed of four modules: the synoptic generator, the motion vector generator, the convective rain cell generator, and the low-intensity rainfall generator. The HiReS-WG was applied to a study region on the northwestern Israeli coastline in the Eastern Mediterranean, for which 12 year weather radar and synoptic data were extensively analyzed to derive probability distributions of convective rain cells and other rainfall properties for different synoptic classifications; these distributions were used as input to the HiReS-WG. Simulated rainfall data for 300 years were evaluated for annual rain depth, season timing, wet-/dry-period durations, rain-intensity distributions, and spatial correlations. In general, the WG well represented the above properties compared to radar and rain-gauge observations from the studied region, with one limitation—an inability to reproduce the most extreme cases. The HiReS-WG is a good tool to study catchments’ hydrological responses to variations in rainfall, especially small-size to medium-size catchments, and it can also be linked to climate models to force the prevailing synoptic conditions.